Departure From the Sandwich Islands.- Misunderstandings- Miseries of a Suspicious
Man.- Arrival at the Columbia - Dangerous Service. - Gloomy Apprehensions- Bars and
Breakers.- Perils of the Ship. Disasters of a Boat's Crew.-Burial of a Sandwich Islander.
IT was on the 28th of February that the Tonquin set sail from the Sandwich Islands. For
two days the wind was contrary, and the vessel was detained in their neighborhood; at
length a favorable breeze sprang up, and in a little while the rich groves, green hills,
and snowy peaks of those happy islands one after another sank from sight, or melted
into the blue distance, and the Tonquin ploughed her course towards the sterner
regions of the Pacific.
The misunderstandings between the captain and his passengers still continued; or
rather, increased in gravity. By his altercations and his moody humors, he had cut
himself off from all community of thought, or freedom of conversation with them. He
disdained to ask questions as to their proceedings, and could only guess at the
meaning of their movements, and in so doing indulged in conjectures and suspicions,
which produced the most whimsical self-torment.
Thus, in one of his disputes with them, relative to the goods on board, some of the
packages of which they wished to open, to take out articles of clothing for the men or
presents for the natives, he was so harsh and peremptory that they lost all patience,
and hinted that they were the strongest party, and might reduce him to a very ridiculous
dilemma, by taking from him the command.
A thought now flashed across the captain's mind that they really had a plan to depose
him, and that, having picked up some information at Owyhee, possibly of war between
the United States and England, they meant to alter the destination of the voyage;
perhaps to seize upon ship and cargo for their own use.
Once having conceived this suspicion, everything went to foster it. They had distributed
fire-arms among some of their men, a common precaution among the fur traders when
mingling with the natives. This, however, looked like preparation. Then several of the
partners and clerks and some of the men, being Scotsmen, were acquainted with the
Gaelic, and held long conversations together in that language. These conversations
were considered by the captain of a "mysterious and unwarranted nature," and related,
no doubt, to some foul conspiracy that was brewing among them. He frankly avows
such suspicions, in his letter to Mr. Astor, but intimates that he stood ready to resist any
treasonous outbreak; and seems to think that the evidence of preparation on his part
had an effect in overawing the conspirators.
The fact is, as we have since been informed by one of the parties, it was a mischievous
pleasure with some of the partners and clerks, who were young men, to play upon the
suspicious temper and splenetic humors of the captain. To this we may ascribe many of
their whimsical pranks and absurd propositions, and, above all, their mysterious
colloquies in Gaelic.
In this sore and irritable mood did the captain pursue his course, keeping a wary eye
on every movement, and bristling up whenever the detested sound of the Gaelic
language grated upon his ear. Nothing occurred, however, materially to disturb the
residue of the voyage excepting a violent storm; and on the twenty-second of March,
the Tonquin arrived at the mouth of the Oregon, or Columbia River.
The aspect of the river and the adjacent coast was wild and dangerous. The mouth of
the Columbia is upwards of four miles wide with a peninsula and promontory on one
side, and a long low spit of land on the other; between which a sand bar and chain of
breakers almost block the entrance. The interior of the country rises into successive
ranges of mountains, which, at the time of the arrival of the Tonquin, were covered with
A fresh wind from the northwest sent a rough tumbling sea upon the coast, which broke
upon the bar in furious surges, and extended a sheet of foam almost across the mouth
of the river. Under these circumstances the captain did not think it prudent to approach
within three leagues, until the bar should be sounded and the channel ascertained. Mr.
Fox, the chief mate, was ordered to this service in the whaleboat, accompanied by John
Martin, an old seaman, who had formerly visited the river, and by three Canadians. Fox
requested to have regular sailors to man the boat, but the captain would not spare them
from the service of the ship, and supposed the Canadians, being expert boatmen on
lakes and rivers, were competent to the service, especially when directed and aided by
Fox and Martin. Fox seems to have lost all firmness of spirit on the occasion, and to
have regarded the service with a misgiving heart. He came to the partners for
sympathy, knowing their differences with the captain, and the tears were in his eyes as
he represented his case. "I am sent off," said he, "without seamen to man my boat, in
boisterous weather, and on the most dangerous part of the northwest coast. My uncle
was lost a few years ago on this same bar, and I am now going to lay my bones
alongside of his." The partners sympathized in his apprehensions, and remonstrated
with the captain. The latter, however, was not to be moved. He had been displeased
with Mr. Fox in the earlier part of the voyage, considering him indolent and inactive;
and probably thought his present repugnance arose from a want of true nautical spirit.
The interference of the partners in the business of the ship, also, was not calculated to
have a favorable effect on a stickler for authority like himself, especially in his actual
state of feeling towards them.
At one o'clock, P.m., therefore, Fox and his comrades set off in the whaleboat, which is
represented as small in size, and crazy in condition. All eyes were strained after the
little bark as it pulled for shore, rising and sinking with the huge rolling waves, until it
entered, a mere speck, among the foaming breakers, and was soon lost to view.
Evening set in, night succeeded and passed away, and morning returned, but without
the return of the boat.
As the wind had moderated, the ship stood near to the land, so as to command a view
of the river's mouth. Nothing was to be seen but a wild chaos of tumbling waves
breaking upon the bar, and apparently forming a foaming barrier from shore to shore.
Towards night the ship again stood out to gain sea-room, and a gloom was visible in
every countenance. The captain himself shared in the general anxiety, and probably
repented of his peremptory orders. Another weary and watchful night succeeded,
during which the wind subsided, and the weather became serene.
On the following day, the ship having drifted near the land, anchored in fourteen
fathoms water, to the northward of the long peninsula or promontory which forms the
north side of the entrance, and is called Cape Disappointment. The pinnace was then
manned, and two of the partners, Mr. David Stuart and Mr. M'Kay, set off in the hope of
learning something of the fate of the whaleboat. The surf, however, broke with such
violence along the shore that they could find no landing place. Several of the natives
appeared on the beach and made signs to them to row round the cape, but they
thought it most prudent to return to the ship.
The wind now springing up, the Tonquin got under way, and stood in to seek the
channel; but was again deterred by the frightful aspect of the breakers, from venturing
within a league. Here she hove to; and Mr. Mumford, the second mate, was despatched
with four hands, in the pinnace, to sound across the channel until he should find four
fathoms depth. The pinnace entered among the breakers, but was near being lost, and
with difficulty got back to the ship. The captain insisted that Mr. Mumford had steered
too much to the southward. He now turned to Mr. Aiken, an able mariner, destined to
command the schooner intended for the coasting trade, and ordered him, together with
John Coles, sail-maker, Stephen Weekes, armorer, and two Sandwich Islanders, to
proceed ahead and take soundings, while the ship should follow under easy sail. In this
way they proceeded until Aiken had ascertained the channel, when signal was given
from the ship for him to return on board. He was then within pistol shot, but so furious
was the current, and tumultuous the breakers, that the boat became unmanageable,
and was hurried away, the crew crying out piteously for assistance. In a few moments
she could not be seen from the ship's deck. Some of the passengers climbed to the
mizzen top, and beheld her still struggling to reach the ship; but shortly after she
broached broadside to the waves, and her case seemed desperate. The attention of
those on board of the ship was now called to their own safety. They were in shallow
water; the vessel struck repeatedly, the waves broke over her, and there was danger of
her foundering. At length she got into seven fathoms water, and the wind lulling, and
the night coming on, cast anchor. With the darkness their anxieties increased. The
wind whistled, the sea roared, the gloom was only broken by the ghastly glare of the
foaming breakers, the minds of the seamen were full of dreary apprehensions, and
some of them fancied they heard the cries of their lost comrades mingling with the
uproar of the elements. For a time, too, the rapidly ebbing tide threatened to sweep
them from their precarious anchorage. At length the reflux of the tide, and the springing
up of the wind, enabled them to quit their dangerous situation and take shelter in a
small bay within Cape Disappointment, where they rode in safety during the residue of
a stormy night, and enjoyed a brief interval of refreshing sleep.
With the light of day returned their cares and anxieties. They looked out from the mast-head over a wild coast, and wilder sea, but could discover no trace of the two boats
and their crews that were missing. Several of the natives came on board with peltries,
but there was no disposition to trade. They were interrogated by signs after the lost
boats, but could not understand the inquiries.
Parties now Went on shore and scoured the neighborhood. One of these was headed
by the captain. They had not proceeded far when they beheld a person at a distance in
civilized garb. As he drew near he proved to be Weekes, the armorer. There was a
burst of joy, for it was hoped his comrades were near at hand. His story, however, was
one of disaster. He and his companions had found it impossible to govern their boat,
having no rudder, and being beset by rapid and whirling currents and boisterous
surges. After long struggling they had let her go at the mercy of the waves, tossing
about, sometimes with her bow, sometimes with her broadside to the surges,
threatened each instant with destruction, yet repeatedly escaping, until a huge sea
broke over and swamped her. Weekes was overwhelmed by the broiling waves, but
emerging above the surface, looked round for his companions. Aiken and Coles were
not to be seen; near him were the two Sandwich Islanders, stripping themselves of their
clothing that they might swim more freely. He did the same, and the boat floating near
to him he seized hold of it. The two islanders joined him, and, uniting their forces, they
succeeded in turning the boat upon her keel; then bearing down her stern and rocking
her, they forced out so much water that she was able to bear the weight of a man
without sinking. One of the islanders now got in, and in a little while bailed out the
water with his hands. The other swam about and collected the oars, and they all three
got once more on board.
By this time the tide had swept them beyond the breakers, and Weekes called on his
companions to row for land. They were so chilled and benumbed by the cold, however,
that they lost all heart, and absolutely refused. Weekes was equally chilled, but had
superior sagacity and self-command. He counteracted the tendency to drowsiness and
stupor which cold produces by keeping himself in constant exercise; and seeing that
the vessel was advancing, and that everything depended upon himself, he set to work
to scull the boat clear of the bar, and into quiet water.
Toward midnight one of the poor islanders expired; his companion threw himself on his
corpse and could not be persuaded to leave him. The dismal night wore away amidst
these horrors: as the day dawned, Weekes found himself near the land. He steered
directly for it, and at length, with the aid of the surf, ran his boat high upon a sandy
Finding that one of the Sandwich Islanders yet gave signs of life, he aided him to leave
the boat, and set out with him towards the adjacent woods. The poor fellow, however,
was too feeble to follow him, and Weekes was soon obliged to abandon him to his fate
and provide for his own safety. Falling upon a beaten path, he pursued it, and after a
few hours came to a part of the coast, where, to his surprise and joy, he beheld the ship
at anchor and was met by the captain and his party.
After Weekes had related his adventures, three parties were despatched to beat up the
coast in search of the unfortunate islander. They returned at night without success,
though they had used the utmost diligence. On the following day the search was
resumed, and the poor fellow was at length discovered lying beneath a group of rocks,
his legs swollen, his feet torn and bloody from walking through bushes and briars, and
himself half-dead with cold, hunger, and fatigue. Weekes and this islander were the
only survivors of the crew of the jolly-boat, and no trace was ever discovered of Fox
and his party. Thus eight men were lost on the first approach to the coast; a
commencement that cast a gloom over the spirits of the whole party, and was regarded
by some of the superstitious as an omen that boded no good to the enterprise.
Towards night the Sandwich Islanders went on shore, to bury the body of their
unfortunate countryman who had perished in the boat. On arriving at the place where it
had been left, they dug a grave in the sand, in which they deposited the corpse, with a
biscuit under one of the arms, some lard under the chin, and a small quantity of
tobacco, as provisions for its journey in the land of spirits. Having covered the body
with sand and flints, they kneeled along the grave in a double row, with their faces
turned to the east, while one who officiated as a priest sprinkled them with water from a
hat. In so doing he recited a kind of prayer or invocation, to which, at intervals, the
others made responses. Such were the simple rites performed by these poor savages
at the grave of their comrade on the shores of a strange land; and when these were
done, they rose and returned in silence to the ship, without once casting a look behind.